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The Battle of Pozsony

Military command: "Exterminate the Hungarians!"

 Példa kép

   The biggest battle in the X. century was fought by the Hungarians in 907 against the united European crusaders led by the Bavarians. The outcome of the battle is known: the Hungarian army destroyed the crusaders, who came to eradicate them and with the victory they ensured the survival of the Hungarians in the Carpathian Basin.

The course of the battle and the prelude are less well known. Even today they are covered by mystery and preterition. The main cause was of course the settlement of Hungarians in the Carpathian Basin: to be united with their relatives, the Avars and Székelys to create a strong empire and to prevent the eastern expansion of the Franks and Bavarians. The West feared that the strengthened Hungarians would re-establish the great empire of Atilla the Hun and restore the borders till the Rhine river and the North Sea.

   The western crusade's preparation began after the ally of the Hungarians, the German-Roman emperor Arnulf passed away (899). At the beginning, it was due to spiritual and religious causes. The Hungarians were demonized, they were labelled as the Apocalypse horsemen allied with the devil and called ruthless pagans. The aim was to set up a united European Christian army which could defeat the Hungarians. The mental preparation and the anti-pagan propaganda in the churches went well and in the spring of 907, a huge army of crusaders gathered in Ennsburg and took an oath to the military command of King Ludwig: "Exterminate the Hungarians" ("Hunguros eliminandos esse"). The campaign to destroy and eliminate the Hungarians and Avars began.

   The author took into account the real historical events of the IX. and X. centuries and the events which influenced the motives of the main characters. The Hungarians and their allies' main protagonists: Árpád kende, Kurszán horka, Szabolcs gyula, Bogat leader of the Avars, Kaszon székely prince, Becse székely leader, Urkund, Pecheneg khagan, Arnulf, German-Roman Emperor and pope Formosus. The protagonists of the anti Hungarian coalition:
Adeltrude, Spoleto's Empress, Lambert, Spoleto's Emperor, Pope Stephanus the VI., Pope Sergius the III., Berangar, the king of Italy, Theodora, wealthy Roman widow, Leo, Emperor of the Byzantine Empire, Philippos ambassador of Byzantine, Thietmar, archbishop of Salzburg and Luitpold, prince of Bavaria.

 

The conspiracy:
  

   In the beginning of year 896 pope Formosus asked king Arnulf of Eastern Franconia to gather a strong army and help liberating Rome. The main strength of the army was the Hungarian horse archery regiment. The army led by Arnulf and Kurszán defeated the Spoleto army and freed pope Formosus from his refuge in the Angels Castle. The pope crowned Arnulf to become German-Roman Emperor.

   The coronation induced the perpetual hatred by Adeltrude, Empress of Spoleto against Arnulf and the Hungarians. The empress, who loved the erotic pleasures and enjoyed conspiracies, poisoned pope Formosus two months after he crowned Arnulf, and had the intimidated council appoint her lover as the new pope under the name Stepnanus VI. The Empress and the new pope got terrible revenge on the deceased pope Formosus. They had his corpse exhumated and convoked the religious council, which is known as "Synodus Horrenda" or "Cadaver Synod". The corpse in process of decomposition was dressed up in papal vestments and exposed to the council.

 

The synod's tribunal withdrew all  decrees of pope Formosus, annullated all his appointments and consacrations including the coronation of Emperor Arnulf. "The devils which took his spirit" were condemned to eternal damnation and the Hungarians who helped him were denounced as the biggest enemies of Christianity. As a result of the synod, pope Stephanus and empress Adeltrude joined in alliance with the Emperor of Byzantium and with the Franconian and Bavarian enemies of the Hungarian-friendly Arnulf.

   After the roman campaign Kurszán horka returned with his army to Hunguria (the contemporary chronicles called the Hungarians Huns, Hungurs, Scytian or Turks) and with his brothers Árpád kende and Szabolcs gyula and the Hungarian, Avar and Székely chieftains called a meeting of the ruling council. They decided to strengthen the unity of their nations and defend the country against all threats. After the councils meeting Szabolcs gyula went beyond the Carpathians to Etelköz and bonded alliance with Urkund, the Pecheneg khagan. According to the agreement, three tribes of the Pechenegs moved to the Carpathian Basin and strengthened with their soldiers the united Hungarian-Avar-Székely forces. The Hungarian - Pecheneg alliance was sealed by the wedding of Árpád kende and the daughter of Urkund khagan.
During this time Kurszán horka built a strong Western defence line with the enthusiastic support of his friend, the székely commander Becse.

   In the beginning of 899, the Italian king Berengar invaded Carinthia, Emperor Arnulfs favourite Alpine province, to extend the Northern borders of his kingdom. Arnulf once again turned to the Hungarians for help. Kurszán moved into Carinthia and Lombardy with his army, and in the Battle of Brenta he defeated Berengar and fixed a favourable treaty and alliance with him.

   In the meantime Empress Adeltrude encountered serious problems. Pope Stephanus was killed by the revolting, starving Roman masses and the new pope Benedictus's policies contradicted her instructions. Therefore the Empress did not hesitate too long and killed pope Benedict and elected with the bribed council Alberto, the bishop of Spoleto, who was known as pope Sergius III. Unfortunately her best friend, Theodora, the richest widow of Rome strived for conquering the new pope and a fierce battle begun between them for the pope. The two power loving women's battle ended with the victory of Theodora. She managed to poison her rival. Theodora and her daughter Marozia beccame the controllers of the weak pope Sergius. The mother endured that her daughter became the mistress of the pope and had a
child from him. With Sergius the III. begun the darkest chapter of the papacy, which is also known in the history as "Pornocracy" or the "Rule of the Harlots". The bawdy and rotten moral lovers ruled over the popes who loved only physical pleasures (904-964).

   The Western military preparation against the Hungarians begun openly after the sudden death of Emperor Arnulf (December 899).  At the beginning, this was controlled by empress Adeltrude and after 904 it was led by Theodora. A hysterical and anti-Hungarian, hateful atmosphere reigned all over Europe. The leaders of the Christian coalition were the archbishop Thietmar of Salzburg and prince Luitpold of Bavaria. They lured Kurszán horka and the Hungarian chiefs Üllő and Becse into an ambush by inviting them to conclude a treaty of alliance. During the negotiations, they assassinated the whole Hungarian delegation.

   Árpád, the Hungarian ruler understood the message of the treacherous murder, which clearly indicated that the West will sooner or later attack and their main goal will be the destruction of the Hungarians and their allies, the Avars and the Székelys. He organized the Hungarian horse archery armies, together with the newly joined Pechenegs to defend
the country.

   The Western coalition armies led by archbishop Thietmar and prince Luitpold, moved along the two sides of the Danube and their ships on the river were carrying the supplies. Árpád first defeated the crusaders of archbishop Thietmar on the right side of the river and destroyed with
burning arrows the supply barges on the Danube. Then during the night with the help of tubes, the army with their horses moved across the Danube and with a sudden attack they destroyed the main crusader army of prince Luitpold. During the battle the two sons of Árpád: Jutas and Tarhos lost their lives.

   The Hungarians won a huge victory in the Battle of Pozsony and discouraged their enemies from attacking the Hungarians, thereby ensuring the survival of the Hungarians in the Carpathian Basin.

 

 

 

 

 

 
Következő >
Atilla a Hun üzenet

 

  
Attila a Hun üzenet

Cey-bert Róbert történelmi regénye
Püski 2012

 Eredeti cím:
Atilla a Hun üzenet

Atilla neve a régi magyar helyesírás szabályai szerint  írva

 

 

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